Behavior of a Multi-Burner Excess Enthalpy Combustion System (MEEC) for Industrial Process Furnacess


Flameless Oxidation (FLOX) is a new technology for burning fuels that is based on delayed mixing of fuel and air. High momentum injection of the comburants achieves high internal flue gas recirculation, thus depleting the oxygen contents in the combustion zone. This reduces the rates of the oxidation reactions and leads to a more distributed release of the chemical energy, avoiding high peak temperatures. Especially in applications with high preheat temperatures of the combustion air, this technique offers enormous advantages compared to traditional combustion methods; e.g. the lower peak temperatures will curb the thermal formation of NO.


The main objective of the project is to generate useful detailed knowledge and design rules for multi-burner FLOX systems. The investigation will combine insights gained in two experimental setups : a 300 kW multi-burner furnace at the department of Process and Energy and a single burner setup at the Department of Multi-Scale Physics (Faculty of Applied Sciences):  

Summary of results

In collaboration with industrial partner WS Gmbh at TU Deflt a 300 kWth test furnace has been built. In this multi-burner furnace, three different burner configurations and two different firing configurations (staggered and parallel) have been compared based on temperature uniformity in the furnace, the emissions (NO and CO) and efficiency. Additionally, the excess air ratio and burner switching time have been varied. Optimal conditions for high efficiency and low emissions have been identified.

Using high speed camera observations and laserdiagnostic measurement techniques (LDAPIV, CARS), is has been demonstrated that the flame in the Delft jet-in-hot-coflow (DJHC) burner stabilises by the effect of auto-ignition kernels. The created database has been used for validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (EDC, PDF). 


Publications resulting from the project


PhD Theses :

Bart Danon, ‘Furnaces with multiple flameless combustion burners’, Delft University of Technology, 2011

Ernst Oldenhof, ‘Auto-ignition and flame stabilisation processes in non-premixed turbulent hot coflow flames’, Delft University of Technology, 2012

Journal papers :

E. Oldenhof, M.J. Tummers, E.H. van Veen, and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, Ignition kernel formation and lift-off behaviour of jet-in-hot-coflow flames, Combustion and Flame, 157 (6) 1167-1178,  2010


Danon, B, de Jong, W, and Roekaerts, DJEM,Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a FLOX Combustor Firing Low Calorific Value GasesCombustion Science and Technology, 182(9), 2010, pp. 1261-1278  


E. Oldenhof, M.J. Tummers, E.H. Van Veen, and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts,Role of entrainment in the stabilisation of jet-in-hot-coflow flames, Combustion and Flame, 2011, DOI:10.1016/j.combustflame.2010.12.018


B. Danon, A. Swiderski, W. de Jong, W. Yang, and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, Emission and efficiency comparison of different firing modes in a furnace with four HiTAC burners, Combustion Science and Technology, 183(7), 686-703, 2011


A. De, E. Oldenhof, P. Sathiah, and D. Roekaerts, Numerical Simulation of Delft-Jet-in-Hot-Coflow (DJHC) Flames using the Eddy Dissipation Concept model for turbulence-chemistry interaction, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion,  Volume: 87   Issue: 4  (2011) Pages: 537-567   DOI 10.1007/s10494-011-9337-0


B. Danon, E.-S. Cho, W. de Jong, and D. Roekaerts, Parametric Optimization Study Of A Multi-Burner Flameless Combustion Furnace, Applied Thermal Engineering, 31 (14-15) 3000-3008 (2011), DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.05.033


B. Danon, E.-S. Cho, W. de Jong, and D. Roekaerts, Numerical investigation of burner positioning effects in a multi-burner flameless combustion furnace, Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume: 31   Issue: 17-18 (2011) Special Issue: SI   Pages: 3885-3896, 2011 

DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2011.07.036


E.-S. Cho, B. Danon, W. de Jong and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, Behavior of a 300 kWth regenerative multi-burner flameless oxidation furnace, APPLIED ENERGY  Volume: 88   Issue: 12 (2011)  Pages: 4952-4959 ,  DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.06.039  


Oldenhof, E, Tummers, MJ, Veen, EH van, and Roekaerts, DJEM, Transient response of the Delft jet-in-hot-coflow flames. Combustion and Flame, 159 (2) 697-706, 2012  
DOI: 10.1016/j.combustflame.2011.08.001

Symposia Proceedings Papers :


Bart Venneker, 'Numerical analysis of a multiburner FLOX combustion furnace at different configurations' at 23. Deutsche Flammentag, 12-13 September 2007, Berlin, Germany.          Published as: B. Danon, B.C.H. Venneker, W. de Jong, and D. Roekaerts, Numerical analysis of a multi-burner FLOX combustion furnace at different configurations. VDI-Berichte nr. 1988, 2007, p.339-344


B. Danon and W. de Jong, 'Experimental study on ultra-low emission combustion in a combustor firing LCV gas' in book of abstracts Combura Symposium, pp. 11-12, 2007.


B. Danon and W. de Jong, 'Experimental study on ultra-low emission combustion in a combustor firing LCV gas' in Proceedings of 7th HiTACG Conference, Phuket, Thailand, paper HiTACG_157, 2008.


Ernst Oldenhof, 'The turbulent flow- and temperature field of the Delft Jet-in-Hot-Coflow burner', at 20TH "JOURNEES D'ETUDES" of the Belgian Section of the Combustion

Institute, May 6-8, 2008, University Gent, Belgium


E. Oldenhof, M.J. Tummers, E.H. van Veen, D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, The Turbulent Flowfield Of The Delft Jet-In-Hot-Coflow Burner, In proceedings of the 5th European Thermal-Sciences Conference, Editors: G.G.M. Stoffels, T.H. van der Meer and A.A. van Steenhoven,
ISBN 978-90-386-1274-4, Eindhoven, 2008


E.S. Cho, B. Danon, W. de Jong, D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, Emission measurements in a multi-burner FLOX furnace, In P Szentannai (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th European Combustion Meeting 2009 (pp. 1-6). Vienna: Vienna University.


E. Oldenhof, M.J. Tummers, D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, Temperature and Velocity Measurements in the Delft Jet-in-Hot-Coflow Burner, In P Szentannai (Ed.), Proceedings of the 4th European      Combustion Meeting 2009 (pp. 1-6). Vienna: Vienna University.


E.-S. Cho, B. Danon, L.D. Arteaga Mendez, W. de Jong and D. J.E.M. Roekaerts Characteristics of Multi-Burner Positioning and Operating Mode in a FLOX furnace, in webproceedings of S4FE2009 - International Conference on "Sustainable Fossil Fuels for Future Energy", Rome , July 6 - 10, 2009


W. de Jong, Experimental research towards the role of burner positioning and firing configuration in a 3x100 kW (thermal) multi-burner excess enthalpy combustion furnace,  in book of abstracts,       the COMBURA symposium, 2009, Utrecht: Technology Foundation    STW, p. 5-7


E. Oldenhof, Auto-ignition processes in the stabilisation region of the jet-in-hot-coflow      flames, in book of abstracts, the COMBURA symposium, 2009, Utrecht: Technology Foundation STW,  p. 18-19



E.-S. Cho, B. Danon, W. de Jong and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts

Cycle time variations of a multi-burner flameless oxidation furnace, in: Proceedings of the 8th Int. Symp. on High Temperature Air Combustion and Gasification (HiTACG), Poznan, Poland, July 5-7, 2010, pp 229-234, Published by Poznan University of Technology


Bart Danon, Eun-Seong Cho, Wiebren de Jong and Dirk Roekaerts,

Carbon monoxide formation in a furnace with regenerative flameless combustion burners,

in: Proceedings of the Eight Asia Pacific Conference on Combustion (ASPACC), pp. 551-557, Hyderabad, India, 10-14th December 2010


Cho, E.-S., Lu, J., Danon, B., de Jong ,W., and Roekaerts, D.J.E.M..
Experimental and computational investigation of a 300kW multi-burner FLOX furnace, in : Proceedings of the INFUB-9 conference, Estoril, Portugal, April 2011


E. Oldenhof, M.J. Tummers, E.H. van Veen, and D.J.E.M. Roekaerts, High Speed Measurements in the Delft jet in hot coflow burner, in Proceedings of Highly Resolved Experimental and Numerical Diagnostics for Turbulent Combustion, Rouen, May 25-26, 2011, 7 pages


Temperature Distribution: Flame and FLOX Modes

Burner Nozzle: Flame and FLOX Modes

Project partners:

TUDelft, Energy Technology
TUDelft, Multi-Scale Physics
TNO Industrie en Techniek
Fluent Europe Ltd
WS-Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH
Nederlandse Vlamvereniging (NVV)

Relevant links:

WS-Wärmeprozesstechnik GmbH

International Flame Research Foundation

STW Platform Schone en Zuivere Verbranding